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2.9.1. Protection against side blow

Fig. 1.18. Crash test (front blow)

Fig. 1.19. Crash test (side-winder)

Statistically the reason of nearly 25% of all severe and fatal injuries of passengers and drivers in case of accidents are side blows. Therefore engineers of Mercedes-Benz developed the crash tests of front blows (fig. 1.18) and side blows (fig. 1.19) which are brought closer to reality and by that created bases for continuous optimization of protection of passengers against such emergency cases in the Mercedes models.
By means of a new crash test engineers it is especially realistic model typical collisions of vehicles. The test is carried out by means of a mobile design which characteristics of deformation correspond to a forward part of the vehicle — the participant of collision
In a new E-class the whole package of measures for increase in passive safety is carried out:
1. The design of the bottom is strengthened under front seats cross beams, steady against mechanical influence. There are elements of strengthening of an average tunnel and cross communication of thresholds.
2. Seats of the driver and the passenger have the high cross durability checked in crash tests.
3. Under a windshield and a toolbar there are rigid bearing beams.
4. A side part of the new car of the E-class is strengthened by the average three-profile rack welded on thresholds for creation of strong connection of a roof and the bottom.
5. Under a back seat and between racks With there are cross bearing beams which provide the high durability of a body in a back zone.
6. Doors, resistant to deformation, are in addition strengthened by pipes.
7. The elements which are under an internal covering of doors from foam material absorb a part of energy of blow and reduce risk of injury of a thorax. Not deformable units, such as electric motors of window regulators or a column of the audio system, are out of possible zones of contact with the passenger at accident.

Requirements to safety of a body
That the body met all requirements imposed to the modern car, it has to correspond to the following criteria.

Rigidity. At big speeds of the movement there are forces to which influence the body in any conditions has to resist. Changes of structure because of a bend and a curve under the influence of centrifugal forces can influence road performance and influence safety. The cowl and doors during the movement of the car should not be exposed to strong elastic deformations for preservation of landing and density.

Deformation. As much as possible energy of collision has to be transformed to deformation. Deformation absorbs kinetic energy of blow. The structure of parts of a body has to be deformed at collision so that to guarantee the smallest damages of interior of the car.

Aerodynamics. Behavior of the car in an air stream — an important prerequisite to the high power and small fuel consumption. Thanks to good aerodynamics at the same power it is possible to reduce resistance of air and fuel consumption. Besides, the aerodynamic form of a body has to guarantee prevention of "lead" of the car against the earth at big speeds.

Durability. A reliable design of a body — only a step to its durability. Effective anticorrosive protection and use of materials with a high resistance of corrosion are also important. Only this way it is possible to guarantee functionality and reliability of a body for long term.

Ease of repair. The guarantee of a possibility of repair and replacement of the separate damaged parts of a body at preservation of its geometrical sizes and relative low cost of these works is necessary.

Behavior at vibration. Acoustic vibrations and vibrations of a running gear, the engine or transmission have to be compensated so that their influence was not transferred to the people sitting in the car.