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4.6.4. Elimination of damages of a paint and varnish covering

During the movement fine dust and stones fly towards to your car therefore on its forward part microcracks of a paint and varnish covering are formed. It occurs most often in the winter when the ice-covered crumb flies. In this case it is possible to use protective paste and then to polish a surface.
   Elimination of damages from small blows
Many suppliers advise to apply to removal of the small hollows (which are formed from blows of small objects, size about a pin head) a varnish for scratches which is rubbed manually. As an alternative to it serves the varnish which is put with a brush and fills hollows much more effectively. It is possible to apply to usual paint and varnish coverings also special wax pencils under color of the car. However the layer of pencil wax maintains some sinks then it needs to be put repeatedly. You will find designation of a varnish and a code of color of the car on the plate which is on a cross-piece under a cowl.
   Elimination of damages of a paint and varnish covering
Damages of a paint and varnish covering should not be ignored as under such adverse conditions as moisture and heat, in several days corrosion can already begin. Therefore eliminate damages of a paint and varnish covering as soon as possible. If the rust for months or years extended freely, you distinguish it on swellings that demonstrates emergence of holes in body metal. In this case only restoration works on a body which in this manual are not described will help.
   Main tools necessary for elimination of damages of a paint and varnish covering
For elimination of damages of a paint and varnish covering it is necessary to have:
– adhesive tape;
– newspapers or film;
– grinding whetstone from a tree or a stopper for grinding on the plane;
– emery paper of different numbers;
– pallet and filling; hardener; the filling applied with dispersion for leveling of roughnesses;
– primer;
– an integumentary varnish under color of the car;
– a cleaner for a varnish, preservative and the polishing structure.

   Elimination of damages from blows of stones
1. If around a hollow on a varnish covering raised edges are formed, remove them with a thin needle. If the rust was formed, carefully remove it with a penknife. Drip on this place converter of a rust and wait about an hour.
2. Process the damaged places gasoline or solvent, well dry.
3. A thin layer apply with a brush or a finger-tip a little primer. Wait until primer dries.
4. Apply with a finger-tip or a small plastic knife a little filling in a hollow, without taking a varnish covering, and let's it dry. You keep in readiness a rag and solvent at once to delete filling spots from a varnish.
5. If you applied too much filling, fix a piece of an emery paper No. 0 on the end of a pencil and, rotating a pencil, carefully remove excess of filling.
6. Scatter a little varnish in a cover from a barrel with a varnish and wait 1 min. A finger-tip or a thin brush apply slightly dried up varnish on the damaged place with very thin layer.
7. When the varnish completely dries (in the summer approximately through 2, and in the winter — in 5 days), process the restored sites polishing medicines, and edges, if necessary, – varnish solvent.

   Polishing of small scratches
1. Clear the damaged places gasoline or solvent. If the damaged place gained the color different from a varnish covering, wipe it polishing medicine or solvent of a varnish. Whenever possible this zone of polishing has to go not strongly beyond regions of the place with changed color is delicious.

Fig. 3.23. Elimination by grinding paste or cleaner for a varnish of small scratches or strips

2. If edges of scratch rough, polish these places a damp velvet emery paper (granularity — no more than 600) to smoothness or eliminate with grinding paste (fig. 3.23) or cleaner for a varnish if still there was a layer of an integumentary varnish. Do not forget to humidify an emery paper constantly.

Do not delete a layer of an integumentary varnish.

3. Polish the damaged place with soft polishing medicine. At the same time parts of paint from surrounding the damaged place of a varnish covering will be distributed in scratch.
4. Apply preservative on the processed place.
5. If you gloss of a covering worries, then upon completion of all works polish your car entirely.

   Removal of severe scratches
1. If on bumpers, wings or doors there are severe scratches, then before restoration of a varnish covering remove these parts from a body — so will easier process the damaged places.

Fig. 3.24. Fastening of an emery paper on grinding whetstone

2. Evenly grind the damaged surface an emery paper (granularity – 80 or 100). It is also possible to fix an emery paper on grinding whetstone (fig. 3.24). Grind the scratched surface uniform motions in one direction. Constantly lower whetstone in water to purify it of the remains of a paint and varnish covering. If the rust was formed, grind this place to metal, apply rust solvent and leave for an hour.
3. Clear and degrease this place gasoline or solvent and let's dry out.
4. Mix filling and a hardener. Filling connects the damaged place with the varnish adjoining on it.

Work with filling quickly as it hardens within several minutes. Therefore for work prepare small amounts of filling. Process roughnesses the filling applied with dispersion.

Fig. 3.25. Drawing shpatlevochny weight uniform thin layers

5. Apply filling (fig. 3.25) evenly with several thin layers. (If you the first time work as the pallet, be trained to apply filling on an old piece of metal before starting the main actions). Approximately in an hour the layer will harden.
6. Polish roughnesses dry an emery paper (granularity – 240). For thin grinding use a damp velvet emery paper (granularity 400) and grind, without pressing.
7. If jags are visible, apply filling with dispersion, let's it harden and in conclusion to a proshlifuyta a damp emery paper (granularity – 600).
8. Before drawing a varnish remove dust from grinding.
As professionals varnish

Fig. 3.26. A way of isolation of not painted over surface when drawing a varnish from a barrel spray

Close a zone near the processed place an adhesive tape (waterproof and stretching), a film or the newspaper. It is also possible to cut out in the big sheet of paper a hole of the size of the processed place (fig. 3.26), then you will not paint over superfluous.

When drawing a varnish toxic fumes therefore take care of good ventilation of a workplace are formed.

As a finely porous basis for an integumentary varnish apply primer (filler) which is on sale in the form of spray. Work accurately — roughnesses are not eliminated when drawing the subsequent layers, and on the contrary — increase. Let's primer dry and grind to uniformity of a covering a damp emery paper (granularity – 600). Wash away the ground remains.

Fig. 3.27. A way of drawing an integumentary varnish from a barrel spray

Evenly put an integumentary varnish from a barrel (is on sale in the form of spray) (fig. 3.27) with several layers. The distance from a barrel to the processed surface has to make 20–30 cm. Conduct a varnish stream over the processed surface exactly, do not interrupt and do not describe ovals — it will reduce formation of flows. Before drawing a varnish take a barrel in hot water a little (without heating it to temperature more than 40 °C). This measure will increase internal pressure in a barrel and the leaving stream of a varnish will be thinner, stronger, and the put layer — more exactly.
Unbend the edges of an adhesive tape (the newspaper or a film) adjoining the processed surface and too accurately process an integumentary varnish. It will make color transition imperceptible.
When the varnish completely dries (in the summer in 2 days, in the winter — through 5), process the restored place polishing medicine, and edges — solvent for a varnish.
If you gloss of a covering worries, upon completion of all works polish your car entirely.

Removal of paint and varnish
The remains of paint, varnish and solvents are the special waste deleted in the special ways, also as well as dirty brushes, rags and barrels sprays. It is desirable not to throw out them with usual household garbage.